The erector spinae

The Erector Spinae

The erector spinae is not just one muscle, but a bundle of muscles and tendons: Iliocostalis lumborum, Iliocostalis thoracis, Iliocostalis cervicis, Longissimus thoracis, Longissimus cervicis, Longissimus capitis, Spinalis thoracis, Spinalis cervicis, and Spinalis capitis. Paired, they run more or less vertically. It extends throughout the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions, and lies in the groove to the side of the vertebral column.Erectores espinales

Erector spinae is covered in the lumbar and thoracic regions by the thoracolumbar fascia, and in the cervical region by the nuchal ligament.

This large muscular and tendinous mass varies in size and structure at different regions. In the sacral region, it is narrow and pointed, and at its origin chiefly tendinous in structure. In the lumbar region, it is larger and forms a thick fleshy mass. Further up, it is subdivided into three columns. These diminish in size as they ascend to be inserted into the vertebrae and ribs.

Some of its fibers are continuous with the fibers of origin of the gluteus maximus.

The erector spinae functions to straighten the back and provides for side-to-side rotation. Also maintains the correct curvature of the spine.

Symptoms and pain associated with the iliocostalis lumborum

– Pain in the low back
– Pain concentrated in the buttock
– Occasionally pain in the low abdomen

 

 

Activities that cause iliocostalis lumborum pain and symptoms

– Bending and twisting when lifting
– Straining when trying to lift something too heavy
– Whiplash of the lower back
– Extended periods of sitting in a car or plane

Pain and symptoms associated with the longissimus thoracis

– Pain in the back starting at the bottom of the ribcage extending down into the buttocks, pain is often more significant at the bottom of the buttock.

– Pain in the back starting at the bottom of the ribcage extending down to the top of the hip, pain is often more significant at the top of the back of the hip and buttock

– Difficulty standing when rising from a sitting position

Activities that cause pain and symptoms of the longissimus thoracis

– Bending and twisting when lifting
– Straining when trying to lift something too heavy
– Whiplash of the lower back
– Extended periods of sitting in a car or plane

Symptoms and pain associated with the iliocostalis thoracis

– Pain in the upper back around the shoulder blade concentrated toward the bottom of the shoulder blade
– Pain in the back running from the top of the shoulder blade down to the upper hip bone. Pain tends to be more concentrated toward the bottom of the ribs.
– Chest pain
– Pain in the abdomen area below the ribcage and toward the side

Activities that cause iliocostalis thoracis pain and symptoms

– Bending and twisting when lifting
– Straining when trying to lift something too heavy
– Whiplash of the lower back
– Extended periods of sitting in a car or plane

Pain and symptoms associated with semispinalis cervicis muscle 

– Pain in the back of the upper neck extending up into the back of the head
– Headaches
– Tenderness in the back of the head and/or neck
– Tingling and burning in the scalp

Activities that cause semispinalis cervicis pain and symptoms

– Blow to the back of the head
– Whiplash
– Cervical collar
– Holding shoulders up due to stress
– Stress

Pain and symptoms associtated with the longissimus capitis muscle

– Pain behind and/or just beneath the ear
– Pain sometimes is felt slightly down the neck and behind the eyes
– Headaches
– Tenderness in the back of the head and neck
– Numbness and/or tingling in the scalp

Activities that cause longissimus capitis pain and symptoms

– Tension headaches
– Cluster headaches
– Whiplash
– Degenerative disc disease
– Herniated disc
– Bulging disc
– Prolapsed disc
– Intervertebral or Vertebral stenosis
– Vertebral vascular disorder
– Cervical spine hyperlordosis
– Military neck
– Thoracic spine hyperkyphosis
– Scoliosis
– Spasmodic Torticollis (Wryneck Syndrome)
– Eye Strain
– Ocular disease
– Mastoiditis

Ppain and symptoms associated with the semispinalis capitis

– Pain in the back of the upper neck extending up into the back of the head
– Band of pain going around the top head
– Pain in the temple region going down to the eye
– Headaches
– Tenderness in the back of the head and neck
– Numbness in the scalp

Activities that cause semispinalis capitis pain and symptoms

– Blow to the back of the head
– Whiplash
– Cervical collar
– Holding shoulders up due to stress
– Stress

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Lower Back

The Erector Spinae is not just one muscle, but a bundle of muscles and tendons. Paired, they run more or less vertically. It extends throughout the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions, and lies in the groove to the side of the vertebral column.

Latissimus Dorsi

The latissimus dorsi is the larger, flat, dorsolateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region.

Deltoids

The Deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder. It is divided into three portions, anterior, lateral and posterior, with the fibers having different roles due to their orientation.

Infraspinatus

The Infraspinatus muscle is one of the four rotator cuff muscles crossing the shoulder joint and is commonly injured. It is the main external rotator of the shoulder joint.

Biceps

The Biceps brachii is  actually two separate bundles of muscles (heads). The two heads of the Biceps vary in length and as a result, are called the Short and the Long Biceps heads.

Triceps

The Triceps Brachii muscles  have three muscle heads: Lateral, Medial and Long head. Primarily responsible for the extension of the elbow joint. The lateral head is used for movements requiring occasional high-intensity force, while the medial fascicle enables more precise, low-force movements.

Forearm
(Anterior muscles)

The Pronator teres pronates the forearm, turning the hand posteriorly. If the elbow is flexed to a right angle, then pronator teres will turn the hand so that the palm faces inferiorly. It is assisted in this action by pronator quadratus.

Forearm
(Posterior muscles)

The Extensor Digitorum muscle helps in the movements of the wrists and the elbows. It extends the phalanges, then the wrist, and finally the elbow. It acts principally on the proximal phalanges. It tends to separate the fingers as it extends them.

Pecs

The pectoralis major makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female.

The pectoralis minor is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major. 

Abs

The Rectus Abdominis is the most superficial of the abdominal muscles. It is this muscle which forms the six-pack shape! It is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the abdomen. There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba.

Obliques

The External Oblique is situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen. It is broad, thin, and irregularly quadrilateral. It is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. 

Glutes

The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. The three muscles originate from the ilium and sacrum and insert on the femur. The functions of the muscles include extension, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation of the hip joint.

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Quadriceps

The Quadriceps Femoris is the knee extensor muscle.  As a group, the quadriceps femoris is crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting. It´s subdivided into four separate “heads”.

Hamstrings

A hamstring is any one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee (from medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris). The hamstrings are quite susceptible to injury.

Lower Leg

The gastrocnemius and the soleus form what we know as calf. They are involved in activities such as walking, running, jumping… 

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Trapezius

The trapezius is a broad, flat and triangular muscle. The muscles on each side form a trapezoid shape. It is the most superficial of all the back muscles.

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