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Dirty dog

The dirty dog involves your abs, butt, and hips. It´s a great exercise to prepare the body for activity.

Come to a hands and knees position. Engage your abs. Keep your spine in a neutral position; avoid any excessive sagging or arching. Pull the shoulder blades toward your hips.
Exhale. Keeping the knee bent, slowly lift the knee outwards and upwards toward the side. Try to move the leg without causing movement in your torso. Hold this position briefly, while keeping a stable torso and head level with your spine.
Inhale and slowly lower your knee back to the floor.
Repeat and switch legs.


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Single Leg Glute Bridge

Glute stability is vital in preventing lower limb injuries: Single leg glute bridge is one way to do this, while toning.

Lie on the floor or an exercise mat with your arms straight at your sides. Fold one leg holding the other straight.

Exhale and simultaneously, lift the pelvis and the straight leg.

Inhale and slowly return to starting position. Complete all the repetitions for one set and change legs.

 


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Side Lying Hip Adduction

A great exercise for our glutes and hips. No equipment needed.
Lie on your side on a mat/floor with your legs straight and your feet stacked in a neutral position. Your lower arm can be bent and placed under your head for support. Your upper arm rests upon your upper hip or in front of you for stability. Your hips and shoulders should be stacked up and aligned vertically to the floor.
Exhale and raise the lower leg off the floor. Keep the knee straight and the foot in a neutral position. Do not allow the hips to roll forward or back. Both knees should be “looking” straight ahead. Continue raising the leg until the hips begin to tilt, the waist collapses into the floor or until your feel tension develop in your low back or oblique muscles.
Inhale and return the leg to your starting position. Repeat.
Due to the limited movement at the hip joint in this direction, the leg need only rise a few inches off the mat/floor.


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Side Lying Hip Abduction

And old and excellent exercise to work our butt and hips with no equipment.
Lie on your side on a mat/floor with your legs straight and your feet stacked in a neutral position. Your lower arm can be bent and placed under your head for support. Your upper arm rests upon your upper hip or in front of you for stability. Your hips and shoulders should be stacked up and aligned vertically to the floor.
Exhale and raise the upper leg. Keep the knee straight and the foot in a neutral position. Do not allow the hips to roll forward or back. Both knees should be “looking” straight ahead. Continue raising the leg until the hips begin to tilt, the waist collapses into the floor or until your feel tension develop in your low back or oblique muscles.
Gently inhale and gently return the leg to your starting position. Repeat.


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Stability ball squat

The squat targets the quads, hamstrings and glutes but also improves balance and stability throughout the core and on both sides of the body.

Place a stability ball against a wall and gently lean against it, positioning the top of the ball into the small of your back.

Your feet should be hip-width apart with toes facing forward or turned out slightly.

Pull your shoulders blades down and back. Do not allow your low back to pull away from the ball. Gently lean into the ball, as you shift your weight into your heels.

Inhale and begin to lower the body, keeping the tailbone, low and mid-back against the ball as you bend your knees.

Push back with your hips, allowing them to drop under the ball. The ball will glide down the wall with you as you lower your body toward the floor. Do not move the feet. Continue to lower yourself until challenged or until your thighs align parallel to the floor.

Exhale and slowly push up away from the floor. Extend your hips to bring them back underneath your body. Continue pushing upward, returning to your starting position. Repeat.


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Squat with Resistance Bands

The squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the thighhips, and butt,  as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs, as well as developing core strength.

Squats with resistance bands offer many options and are super effective. You can do bands squats with arms up, arms down, connected to the bottom of the door and so on. If you are used to heavy squats with weights, you will LOVE squats with bands. The pain in your knees and back will be considerably less.


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Lunges

You can do lunges anywhere and the effects can be seen in no time, in the form of shapely, toned legs and backside. Lunges are a good exercise for strengthening, sculpting and building several muscles/muscle groups, including the quadriceps and hamstrings, as well as the glutes. A long lunge emphasizes the use of the gluteals whereas a short lunge emphasizes the quadriceps. It is a basic movement that is fairly simple to do for beginners.

Some people tend to avoid lunges because it can put too much strain on the knees. If you feel pain, take smaller steps. Increase your lunge distance as your pain gets better. Some people also find that doing a reverse lunge instead of a forward lunge also helps reduce knee strain.

Stand with your torso upright holding two dumbbells in your hands by your sides.

In preparation to step forward, slowly lift one foot off the floor and find your balance on the standing leg. Try not to move the standing foot and maintain balance. Hold this position briefly before stepping forward. The raised foot should land on the heel first. Slowly shift your body weight onto the lead foot, placing it firmly on the floor.

Inhale and lower your upper body down, while keeping the torso upright and maintaining balance. Do not allow your knee to go forward beyond your toes as you come down, as this will put more stress on the knee. Keep your front shin perpendicular to the ground.

Exhale, push up activating your thighs and butt muscles to return to your upright, starting position.. Repeat or change legs


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Static Lunge

The static lunge is a powerful exercise to engage your quads and gluteal muscles. It isn’t too far from a forward lunge :) The key difference in the static lunge is that you hold your position. Instead of stepping forward to perform your lunge, stand with one foot forward and the other back, making a triangle with your legs. Without moving your feet, lower your rear leg until your knee almost touches the floor while bending your front leg. Repeat with the other side.


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Pelvic region

The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs. It includes several structures:

  • the bony pelvis (or pelvic skeleton), which is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk, subdivided into:
    • the pelvic girdle (i.e., the two hip bones), which connects the spine to the lower limbs, and
    • the pelvic region of the spine (i.e., sacrum, and coccyx)
  • the pelvic cavity, defined as a small part of the space enclosed by the bony pelvis, delimited by the pelvic brim above and the pelvic floor below; also subdivided into:
    • the greater (or false) pelvis, above the pelvic brim
    • the lesser (or true) pelvis, below the pelvic brim
  • the pelvic floor (or pelvic diaphragm), below the pelvic cavity
  • the perineum, below the pelvic floor

So, as you imagine, there are a lot of muscles in this region. Let´s focus on the muscles of the hip.

Pelvic region

Posterior muscle groupTensor fascia latae

· Tensor fasciae latae muscle: Assist in keeping the balance of the pelvis while standing, walking or running. Medial rotation and flexion of the hip. Assist weakly with the extension of the knee, lateral rotation of the leg at the knee. Also stabilizes the hip and the knee during standing.

Origin:
anterior aspect of iliac crest
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Insertion: anterior aspect of IT band, below greater trochanter

Pain and symptoms associated with the Tensor Fasciae Latae muscle and Iliotibial Band

– Pain in deep in the hip going down the outside of the thigh
– Pain at the front of the hip joint
– Discomfort sitting
– When standing from a sitting position you tend to stand-up leaning forward at the waist with your knees bent. Straightening to a full standing position is slow with a feeling of stiffness as well as painful
– While standing knees and hips tend to be flexed (bent)
– Pain intensives when foot hits the ground while walking or running

ITBS is the most common pain syndromes in runners, weight lifters, dancers, tennis players and basketball players. Pain or a stinging burning sensation is felt on the outside of the thigh down to the lower knee. Pain is more pronounced when the foot hits the ground while walking or running. Pain from trigger points in the tensor fasciae latae muscle is often diagnosed as bursitis of the hip or thinning of the hip cartilage.

Activities that cause tensor fasciae latae muscle and iliotibial band muscle pain and symptoms

– Too much walking when not in shape
– Running
– Climbing
– Cycling
– Dancing
– Court sports (tennis, basketball, volleyball)

· Gluteus maximus: When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabula femoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur; this is especially obvious in standing on one leg.

Origin:
1. outer rim of ilium (medial aspect)
2. dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx
3. sacrotuberous ligament

Insertion:
1. IT band (primary insertion)
2. gluteal tuberosity of femur

Its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stopping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and adductor Magnus.

The lower part of the muscle also acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints.

Pain and symptoms associated with the Gluteus Maximus muscle

– Low back pain
– Outer hip pain near and or around the joint
– Pain around the tailbone
– Pain and burning in the buttocks
– Increased pain when walking uphill or up an incline
– Inability or increased pain when you bend over to touch your toes

Activities that cause gluteus maximus pain and symptoms

– Jumping
– Falls
– Swimming especially when using the flutter kick
– Climbing
– Deep knee bends
– Repetitive lifting of heavy objects with knees bent (this may protect your back, but puts enormous strain on the glute max)
– Prolonged sitting on hard surfaces
– Sitting for long periods
– Prolonged sitting on a wallet

· Gluteus medius: with the leg in neutral position, it works with the gluteus minimus to pull the thigh away from the midline (abduct the thigh). During gait, supports the body on one leg, in conjunction with the tensor fasciae latae muscle to prevent the pelvis from dropping to the opposite side. With the hip flexed, it works with the gluteus minimus to rotate the hip. With the hip extended, both externally rotate the thigh.

Origin:
1. outer aspect of ilium (between iliac crest and anterior and posterior gluteal lines)
2. upper fascia (AKA gluteal aponeurosis)

Insertion: superior aspect of greater trochanter

Pain and symptoms associated with the Gluteus Medius muscle

– Pain in the lower back around the beltline
– Pain in the hip
– Pain in the buttock
– Pain can extend down the outside of the leg
– Pain can extend into back of the leg
– Pain when lying on the affected side
– Pain will prevent sitting on the afflicted buttock
– Pain worsens when sitting or standing for extended periods of time
– Pain when sitting slouched

Activities that cause gluteus medius pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time with legs crossed
– Standing on hard surfaces for an extended time
– Walking and carrying a heavy item
– Carrying a child on the hip
– Always carrying heavy objects on one side such as filled buckets, heavy briefcase, etc.
– Aerobic exercise
– Running
– Weightlifting

· Gluteus minimus: with the leg in neutral position, it works with the gluteus medius to pull the thigh away from the midline (abduct the thigh). During gait, supports the body on one leg, in conjunction with the tensor fasciae latae muscle to prevent the pelvis from dropping to the opposite side. With the hip flexed, it works with the gluteus medius to rotate the hip. With the hip extended, both externally rotate the thigh.

Origin: outer aspect of ilium (between anterior and inferior gluteal lines)

Insertion:
1. greater trochanter (anterior to medius)
2. articular capsule of hip joint

Pain and symptoms associated with the Gluteus Minimus muscle

– Pain in buttocks
– Pain on the outside of the hip
– Pain in the back and outside of the thigh
– Pain in the back of the calf down to the ankle
– Numbness in buttocks, hip and thigh traveling down to ankle
– Pain while walking
– Difficulty rising from a sitting position
– Difficulty crossing your legs
– Pain while laying on affected side

Activities that cause gluteus minimus pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time with legs crossed
– Sitting on a wallet in the back pocket
– Walking and carrying an heavy item
– Carrying a child on the hip
– Limping for extended periods of time
– Standing with weight unequally distributed on legs

Ventral hip muscle group

· Piriformis: laterally rotates the femur with hip extension and abducts the femur with hip flexion. When the hip is flexed to 90 degrees, piriformis abducts the femur at the hip and reverses primary function, internally rotating the hip when the hip is flexed at 90 degrees or more.

 

Origin: pelvic surface of sacrum (anterior portion)

Insertion: medial surface of greater trochanter (through greater sciatic foramen)

Pain and symptoms associated with the Piriformis muscle

– Low back pain at the base of the spine
– Buttock pain
– Hip pain around the hip joint
– Aching pain, burning or tingling sensations down into the back of the thigh which occasionally extends into the lower leg and/or sole of the foot
– Pelvic pain
– Difficulty or inability to cross your legs
– Difficulty or inability to spreading leg side to side
– Difficulty or inability to step out widely
– Sitting for long periods of time increases pain and discomfort in the hip and/or back of the thigh
– Lying down will often help diminish pain but will not totally alleviate it

– The sciatic nerve runs under the piriformis. The piriformis muscle will sometimes agitate the nerve causing symptoms of sciatica which include pain, tingling, and numbness in the buttock, hip, back of the thigh, back of the calf which extends to the bottom of the foot. This is known as piriformis syndrome. In approximately 15% of the population, the sciatic nerve runs directly through the piriformis muscle. These people are more like to have symptoms of sciatica.
– Women are more prone to problems with piriformis muscle pain.

Activities that cause piriformis pain and symptoms

– Activities and sports requiring quick abrupt changes in directions
– Tennis
– Football
– Soccer
– Basketball
– Twisting while lifting
– Sitting excessively

· External obturator muscle: acts as the lateral rotator of the hip joint. As a short muscle around the hip joint, it stabilizes the hip joint as a postural muscle.

Origin:
1. medial surface of obturator foramen
2. external surface of obturator membrane

Insertion: trochanteric fossa of femur

· Internal obturator muscle: helps laterally rotate femur with hip extension and abduct femur with hip flexion, as well as to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum.

Origin:
1. internal aspect margins of obturator foramen
2. obturator membrane

Insertion: medial aspect of greater trochanter (through lesser sciatic foramen)

· Quadratus femoris: it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but also acts to stabilize the femoral head in the Acetabulum.

Origin: lateral aspect of ischial tuberosity

lateral aspect of ischial tuberosity

Insertion: quadrate line (along posterior aspect of femur and intertrochanteric crest)

quadrate line (along posterior aspect of femur and intertrochanteric crest)

Symptoms and pain associated with the rectus femoris muscle

– Knee pain that feels as if it originates under the knee cap
– Pain in the front of the thigh extending down into the inside of the knee
– Weak knee
– Stiff knee
– Inability to fully straighten knee
– Pain walking down stairs
– Restless Leg Syndrome
– Sharp pain deep in the front of the thigh while sleeping

Activities that cause rectus femoris pain and symptoms

– Cycling
– Climbing
– Running and power walking
– Swimming
– Kicking a football or soccer ball
– Swimming
– Wearing high heel shoes
– Sitting excessively

Dorsal hip muscle group

· Psoas major: contributes to flexion in the hip joint. On the lumbar spine, unilateral contraction bends the trunk laterally while bilateral contraction raises the trunk from its supine position.

 

Origin:
1. transverse processes of L1-L5
2. vertebral bodies of T12-L4 and the intervening intervertebral discs

Insertion: iliopsoas tendon to the lesser trochanter of the femur

· Psoas minor: is a weak flexor of the lumbar vertebral column.

Origin:

Lateral surface bodies of T12 and L1 vertebrae and intervening intervertebral disc

Insertion Pectineal line and iliopubic eminence

· Iliacus: is important for lifting (flexing) the femur forward. From its origin in the lesser pelvis, the iliacus acts exclusively on the hip joint.

Origin:

inner surface of upper iliac fossa

Insertion:

iliopsoas tendon to the lesser trochanter of the femur

Pain and symptoms associated with the Iliopsoas muscles

– Low back pain
– Abdomen pain
– Groin pain
– Leg pain
– Pelvic pain
– Difficulty standing from a sitting position
– Severe pain or inability to do sit-ups or crunches
– Tendency to walk with feet turned out
– Extreme dysfunction in the iliopsoas can cause pain under the shoulder blade that extends down to the top of the hip.

Activities that cause iliopsoas pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time
– Sleeping on your side in the fetal position
– Being overweight
– Strenuous running
– Climbing stairs
– Sit ups, crunches and leg ups
– Slumping posture