Posted on

Weider´s training principles: The progressive overload principle

Joe Weider (November 29, 1919 – March 23, 2013) was a Canadian bodybuilder and entrepreneur who co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) alongside his brother Ben. He was also the creator of the Mr. Olympia, the Ms. Olympia and the Masters Olympia bodybuilding contests.
Joe Weider
Joe’s most indelible addition to the science and sport of bodybuilding is the Weider Principles: over 30 theories and techniques that forever changed the means by which someone could build a strong, muscular body.

The progressive overload principle

To increase any aspect of physical fitness (muscle mass, strength, stamina, etc.), your muscles need to be continually put under increased stress.
Today, I want to focus on muscle mass, to keep it simple for beginners. To achieve more muscle mass, the number of sets is key.
In the early years of bodybuilding, most experts believed that to increase muscle mass, we should only complete one set of each exercise per workout. If the whole body is to complete twelve exercises, this would mean twelve sets per workout.
Weider saw it differently. He was the first to recommend working out using several sets of one exercise (3-5 sets per exercise) to exhaust each muscle group and to stimulate maximum muscle growth.
Start with three sets of each exercise and continue increasing the number of sets until you make five. This strategy will also help you increase your muscle strength gradually without obsessing with the weight you lift. It´s no magic, it´s the progressive overload principle: once your muscles are used to perform three sets, you have to push them to do four sets and then five.
When you are able to do five series with the same weight with which it was hard to do three series the first week, it is time to add more weight.
I know that most bodybuilders speak wonders and encourage you to lift heavy, and so do I, but in due time. The word “heavy” means “difficult to lift or move” and this is a different weight to each person. Whatever is difficult to lift today for you, it will be easier to lift next month.
First, progress from 3 to 5 sets. Then progress to heavier weights.
The progressive overload principle is the core of all physical training and forms a solid basis for successful training.
Posted on

New Year´s Resolutions?

Good morning friends 🙂 Guess what? It´s my birthday!!! You are allowed to eat and drink your favourite junkie food 😀

I need to thank you for your warm and friendly welcome to the blogosphere. Blogging is the most crowded party I have attended. I love parties… My friends would like to play  🙂

You have been a powerful source of inspiration and motivation. Kind, gentle, friendly, helpful… I would love “give” you something in return. I thought about awards and challenges.

So, I did some research and my birthday gift to all of you is this: A new category is coming soon: “Free Fitness Challenges”. You can choose your own challenge and sync it with your usual calendar.

I´m developing some challenges but I would love to hear from you and develop a fitness challenge inspired in your needs (anonymously). If I´m not being clear: This is an open invitation 🙂

My neighbour has a tennis elbow injury. Yesterday I uploaded a specific rehab workout for this condition. She´s so happy now with her workout in her phone, I can´t even tell how it makes me feel 🙂 If you have a tennis elbow injury you are welcome to join!

If you like to be my muse (muses have no gender), please feel free to contact with the subject “challenge” and I´ll send you some questions about your habits and needs. I hope to have a handful of free challenges for new year, it will be easier and funnier with your help 🙂

Contact us

Posted on

Day 4, Ooooouch!

Today´s workout was about triceps and biceps. It was cloudy, it´s usually rainy, so I decided to go walking to the gym. That´s what the session lasts almost two hours:

Polar Day4

It was walking, I promise. Notice how the graph rises with just 45 minutes.

In the other hand, the workout was good to finish the week.

Workout day4

 

Next Monday, Leg day!! I´ll explain you then why I avoided it this week.

Please, have a nice weekend out there 🙂

Posted on

Six-pack

Six pack has 54M results on Google. Not everybody but a lot of people desires a “six-pack”, others simply need to strength their middle section to relief or avoid pain or bad postures.

AbdomenThe transverse abdominal muscle (TVA) is a very important core muscle which is vital in maintaining good posture. It helps to compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability.

The transverse abdominal and the segmental stabilizers of the spine work in tandem.

Without a stable spine, the nervous system fails to recruit the muscles in the extremities, and functional movements cannot be performed.

The TVA is vital to back and core health. Also has the effect of pulling in the abdomen. Training only the rectus abdominis muscle will not and can not give one a “flat” belly. This goal is achieved only through training the TVA.

Recently, the transverse abdominal muscle has become the subject of debate between kinesiologists, strength trainers, and physical therapists. The two positions on the muscle are:

  1. The muscle is effective and capable of bracing the human core during heavy lifts.
  2. It is not.

Anyway, how to do a stomach vacuum:

Origin:

  1. Front of the iliac crest.
  2. Inguinal ligament.
  3. Costal cartilages of the lower 6 ribs.
  4. Thoracolumbar fascia.

Insertion:

Linea alba.

Rectus Abdominis is the most superficial of the abdominal muscles. It is this muscle which forms the six-pack shape! It is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the abdomen. There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba.

Origin:

  1. Crest of the pubis.
  2. Pubic symphesis.

Insertion:

  1. Xiphoid process (base of the sternum).
  2. 5th,6th and 7th costal cartilages.

The six-pack flexes the lumbar spine, as when doing a so-called “crunch” sit up. The rib cage is brought up to where the pelvis is when the pelvis is fixed:

or the pelvis can be brought towards the rib cage (posterior pelvic tilt) when the rib cage is fixed, such as:

The Rectus Abdominis assists with breathing and plays an important role in respiration when forcefully exhaling. It also helps in creating intra-abdominal pressure, such as when exercising or lifting heavy weights.

Pain and symptoms associated with the Rectus Abdominis muscle
– Pain that runs horizontal across the mid back under the shoulder blade
– Pain that runs horizontal across the low back
– Pain around the sternum between the breasts (not shown)
– Pain in the low abdomen
– Feeling bloated
– Heartburn and indigestion
– Testicle pain
– Pain in the pelvic area
Activities that cause rectus abdominis pain and symptoms
– Over exercising muscles (sit-ups and leg-ups)
– Shallow breathing
– Chronic coughing
– Sitting for long periods of time
– Sitting in a twisted position
– Childbirth
– Abdominal surgery
– Scars from abdominal surgery
– Chronic Constipation
– Carrying a heavy backpack

The external oblique is situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen. It is broad, thin, and irregularly quadrilateral. It is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. The obliques wrap around the trunk on each side to form our waists and join to the linea alba, a band of connective tissue running down the front of the abdomen.

Origin:

Lowest 8 ribs.

Insertion:

  1. Front 1/2 of the iliac crest.
  2. Linea alba.

The external oblique pulls the chest downwards and compresses the abdominal cavity, which increases the intra-abdominal pressure. It also has limited actions in flexion and rotation of the vertebral column.

The internal oblique muscle is the intermediate muscle of the abdomen, lying deep to the external oblique and just superficial to the transverse abdominal muscle. The internal obliques wrap around the waist and insert into the linea alba, a cord-like strip of connective tissue running down the center of the abdomen.

The internal oblique performs two major functions. First, as an accessory muscle of respiration, it acts as an antagonist to the diaphragm, helping to reduce the volume of the chest cavity during exhalation. When the diaphragm contracts, it pulls the lower wall of the chest cavity down, increasing the volume of the lungs. When the internal obliques contract they compress the organs of the abdomen, pushing them up into the diaphragm which intrudes back into the chest cavity reducing the volume of the air filled lungs, producing an exhalation.

Also, its contraction rotates and side-bends the trunk by pulling the rib cage and midline towards the hip and lower back, of the same side.

Origin:

  1. Iliac crest.
  2. Inguinal ligament.
  3. Thoracolumbar fascia.

Insertion:

  1. Lower 3-4 ribs.
  2. Linea alba.

Pain and symptoms associated with the External and Internal Oblique muscles

– Pain in the side, in the waist area
– Pain in the groin area
– Pain in the low abdomen
– Heartburn and indigestion
– Testicle pain
– Bladder pain and incontinence
– Pain in the pelvis area

Activities that cause obliques muscle pain and symptoms

– Abdominal scars from surgery
– Over exercising muscles (twisting and side bending exercises)
– Rowing
– Raking leaves
– Lifting using tools like shovels or pitchforks
– Chronic coughing
– Sitting for long periods of time
– Slouching posture

The Quadratus Lumborum, or QL, can perform different actions:

  1. Lateral flexion of the vertebral column, with ipsilateral contraction.
  2. Extension of the vertebral column, with bilateral contraction.
  3. Elevates the Ilium (bone), with ipsilateral contraction.

 

Origin:

  1. Posterior iliac crest.
  2. Iliolumbar ligament.

Insertion:

  1. Twelfth rib.
  2. Transerve processes of L1-L4.

This muscle is a common source of lower back pain. The QL connects the pelvis to the spine and is capable of extending the lower back when contracting bilaterally. When the lower fibers of the erector spinae are weak or inhibited, the QLs pick up the slack. Given their mechanical disadvantage, constant contraction while you are seated can overuse the QLs, resulting in muscle fatigue. A constantly contracted QL, like any other muscle, will experience decreased blood flow. In time, adhesions in the muscle and fascia may develop, the end point of which is the muscle spasm.

Pain and symptoms associated with the Quadratus Lumborum muscle

– Pain in the low back, constant deep aching even at rest
– Pain in the hips and buttocks
– Groin pain
– Pelvic pain
– Pain down the front of the thigh
– Low abdominal pain
– Stabbing back and or abdominal pain when coughing or sneezing

Activities that cause quadratus lumborum pain and symptoms
– Lifting heavy objects
– Twisting while lifting
– Sleeping on a mattress that is too soft
– Horseback riding
– Golfing
– Kayaking
– Leg length discrepancy – one leg shorter than other. This can be the way you were born or due to injury. It is often seen after a leg has been in a cast or splint.
– The QL muscles are often affected when you slip and or fall

Posted on

The thigh

The thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. We divide the thigh into three compartments: anterior, medial, and posterior.

Anterior compartment muscles

SartoriusIt is the longest muscle in the body. It assists in flexing, weak abduction and lateral rotation of the hip, and knee flexion.
Origin:
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Insertion:
1. upper medial surface of body of tibia

Pain and symptoms associated with the Sartorius muscle– Burning stinging pain under the skin starting at the outside of the bottom of the hip, traveling down the thigh to the inside of the knee (pain and/0r stinging can occur anywhere along the muscle)
– Inside of knees may be painful or hypersensitive
– Sleeping with a pillow between the knees often eases painActivities that cause sartorius muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs up and crossed for long periods of time (recliners, sleeping)
– Slipping or a misstep
– Sports that require planting one foot and making a sharp turn (basketball, football)
– Walking with an extended long stride

Quadriceps femoris: It is the knee extensor muscle.  As a group, the quadriceps femoris is crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting. It´s subdivided into four separate “heads”:


Rectus femoris: It is the only muscle of the group which crosses the hip joint and is a powerful knee extensor when the hip is extended but is weak when the hip is flexed.
Origin:
1. anterior head: anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
2. posterior head: ilium just above the acetabulum
Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Pain and symptoms associated with the Rectus Femoris muscle

– Knee pain that feels as if it originates under the knee cap
– Pain in the front of the thigh extending down into the inside of the knee
– Weak knee
– Stiff knee
– Inability to fully straighten knee
– Pain walking down stairs
– Restless Leg Syndrome
– Sharp pain deep in the front of the thigh while sleeping

Activities that cause rectus femoris pain and symptoms

– Cycling
– Climbing
– Running and power walking
– Swimming
– Kicking a football or soccer ball
– Swimming
– Wearing high heel shoes
– Sitting excessively

Vastus lateralis or externus: It´s the largest part of the quadriceps femoris.
Origin:
1. greater trochanter
2. lateral lip of linea aspera
3. lateral intermuscular septum
Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Pain and symptoms associated with the Vastus Lateralis– Knee pain
– Pain on the side of the thigh extending down into the front and back of the knee
– Pain under the buttock extending toward the hip joint
– Pain occasionally descends into the back of the calf
– Locked knee
– Extended walking increases pain in the thigh and kneeActivities that cause vastuslateralis pain and symptoms

– Climbing
– Skiing
– Sitting excessively
– Immobilizing the knee ie. casting, inflexible knee brace.

Vastus medialis: It is the deeper muscle of the quadriceps muscle group. The intern is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained. It can´t be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch.

Origin:
1. intertrochanteric line of femur
2. medial aspect of linea aspera
Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Pain and symptoms associated with the Vastus Medialis– Pain on the inside of the knee extending half way up the front of the thigh
– Persistent pain in the knee joint
– Can cause the knee to ‘buckle’ (trick knee)
– People often sleep with a pillow between the knees to relieve the painActivities that cause vastusmedialis muscle pain and symptoms

– Deep knee bends
– Running
– Step masters or running stairs

Vastus intermedius: It contributes to correct tracking of the patella.

Origin:
anterior lateral aspect of the femoral shaft
Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Pain and symptoms associated with the Vastus Intermedius muscle

– Pain down the middle of the front of the thigh
– Pain increases when walking
– Contributes to weak buckling knees
– Pain greatly increases when climbing stairs
– Problems straightening the knee after sitting
– Stiffness in the knee causes a limp

Activities that cause vastusintermedius pain and symptoms

– Climbing
– Running
– Over exercise of the quadriceps muscles
– Overuse of the knee
– Sitting for long periods of time


Medial compartment muscles

Gracilis: Is the most superficial muscle of the medial side. It adducts, medially rotates and flexes the hip, and aids in flexion of the knee.
Origin:
body of pubis & inferior pubic ramus
Insertion:
1. medial surface of proximal tibia, inferior to tibial condyle

Pain and symptoms associated with the Gracilis muscle– Hot stinging pain under the skin on the inside of the thigh
– Pain is constant even at rest, changing position does not subside painActivities that cause gracilis muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs crossed for long periods of time
– Horseback riding
– Skiing
– Slipping or a misstep
– Doing the splits

Pectineus: It is the most anterior adductor of the hip. Its primary function is hip flexion. Also, it adducts and medially rotates the thigh.

Origin:
1. pectineal line of the pubis
2. superior pubic ramus
Insertion:
1. the pectineal line of the femur
2. (just below the lesser trochanter on the posterior aspect of the femur)

Pain and symptoms associated with the Pectineus muscle

– Pain in the fold where the leg joins the body
– Groin pain
– Pelvic pain
– Pain increases when walking
– Sleeping with a pillow between the knees eases the pain

Activities that cause pectineus muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs up and crossed for long periods of time (recliners, sleeping)
– Slipping or a misstep
– Spreading legs too far apart vertically or horizontally
– Power walking
– Gymnastics
– Splits
– Horseback riding
– Lifting with legs spread too far apart
– Hip replacement surgery

The pectineus is often injured when a person starts a regimen of power walking. During power walking, a person will often extend their stride, reaching farther than they would in a normal stride. Overextension, while walking or running, can stain the pectineus.

The adductor muscle group is used pressing the thighs together to ride a horse, kicking with the inside of the foot in soccer or swimming. They contribute to flexion of the thigh when running or against resistance (squatting, jumping…)


Adductor brevis: immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus, the adductor brevis pulls the thigh medially. Also stabilizes the movements of the trunk when standing on both feet,m or to balance when standing on a moving surface. Primarily known as a hip adductor, it also functions as a hip flexor.

Origin:
body & inferior ramus of pubis
Insertion:
superior portion of linea aspera

Pain and symptoms associated with the adductor brevis muscle

– Groin pain during activity, pain subsides with rest
– Pain in the front of the outer upper thigh near the hip joint
– Deep pain in the hip joint
– Stiffness in the hip especially when turning the leg outward
– Pain above the knee
– Pain can descend down into the shin
– Pain increases while carrying objects
– Restricted movement in the hip and thigh

Activities that cause adductor brevis muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs crossed for long periods of time
– Horseback riding
– Slipping on ice or slick surfaces
– Moving legs too far apart horizontally or vertically

Adductor longus: Adducts the thigh and medially rotate.

Origin:
anterior surface of pubis, just inferior to the pubic tubercle
Insertion:
medial lip of linea aspera on middle half of femur

Pain and symptoms associated with the adductor longus muscle

– Groin pain during activity, pain subsides with rest
– Pain in the front of the outer upper thigh near the hip joint
– Deep pain in the hip joint
– Stiffness in the hip especially when rotating the knee outward
– Pain above the knee
– Pain can descend down into the shin
– Restricted movement in the hip and thigh
– Pain is greater when carrying something

Activities that cause adductor longus muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs crossed for long periods of time
– Horseback riding
– Slipping on slippery surfaces
– Moving legs too far apart horizontally or vertically

Adductor magnus: Powerful adductor of the thigh made especially active when the legs are moved from a widespread position to one in which the legs parallel each other.

 Origin:
1. anterior fibers: inferior pubic ramus
2. oblique fibers: ischial ramus
3. posterior fibers: ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
1. proximal 1/3 of linea aspera
2. adductor tubercle

Pain and symptoms associated with the adductor magnus muscle

– Groin pain during activity, pain lessens at rest
– Pain in the front of the inner upper thigh
– Pain and stiffness in the hip and knee that is often felt throughout the inner thigh
– Deep and or sharp pelvic pain that can affect the vagina, rectum, prostate, and bladder

Trigger points in the adductor magnus can cause pain deep in the pelvic area. Pain may present as a dull ache or a sharp stabbing pain. Those suffering from adductor magnus symptoms often sleep with a pillow in between the knees to ease pain.

Activities that cause adductor magnus muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting with legs crossed for long periods of time
– Climbing stairs
– Horseback riding
– Skiing
– Slipping on ice
– Moving legs too far apart horizontally or vertically

Posterior compartment muscles
Biceps femoris: It has two parts or “heads”. Both heads perform knee flexión. The long head (1 of the three hamstring muscles) is involved in hip extension. It is a weaker flexor when the hip is extended as well as a weaker hip extender when the knee is flexed. When the knee is semiflexed, the biceps femoris rotates the leg slightly outward.
Origin:
1. long head: ischial tuberosity
2. short head: lateral lip of linea aspera and the lateral intermuscular septum
Insertion:
1. head of fibula
2. maybe to the lateral tibial condyle

Pain and symptoms associated with the biceps femoris muscle– Pain in the back of the knee
– Pain toward the outside of the knee going up the outside of the thigh
– Pain worsens while walking
– Pain in the back of the leg when rising from a sitting position
– Persistent sitting can cause pain in the anterior thigh and deep in the buttock
– Pain when rising from a sitting positionActivities that cause biceps femoris muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time
– Sitting on a chair with a small seat in which the edge puts pressure on the thigh
– Sitting on a hard surface putting pressure on the hamstrings
– Poorly conditioned athletes frequently injury the hamstrings
– Football
– Soccer
– Swimming
– Cycling

Semimembranosus: It helps to extend the hip joint and flex the knee. Also medially rotates the femur when the hip is extended. It can counteract the forward bending at the hip joint.

Origin:
ischial tuberosity

Insertion:
1. posterior medial aspect of medial tibial condyle
2. fibers join to form most of oblique popliteal ligament (& medial meniscus)

Pain and symptoms associated with the Semimembranosus muscle– Pain just below the buttock
– Pain down the back of the thigh and into the knee, occasionally going into the upper calf
– Pain intensifies while walking
– Deep aching pains in thigh and knee while sleeping
– Deep pain in the back of the thigh when rising from a seated positionActivities that cause semimembranosus muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time
– Sitting on a hard surface putting pressure on the hamstrings
– Poorly conditioned athletes frequently injury the hamstrings
– Kicking a ball (football, soccer)
– Hurdles
– Doing the splits

Semitendinosus: It lies between the other two muscles. Collectively flex the knee and extend the hip.

Origin:
ischial tuberosity

Insertion:
1. medial aspect of tibial shaft
2. contributes to the pez anserine

 

Pain and symptoms associated with the Semitendinosus muscle

– Pain just below the buttock
– Pain down the back of the thigh and into the knee, occasionally going into the upper calf
– Pain intensifies while walking
– Aching pain down the back of the thigh while sleeping
– Deep pain when rising from seated position

Activities that cause semitendinosus muscle pain and symptoms

– Sitting for long periods of time
– Sitting on a hard surface putting pressure on the hamstrings
– Poorly conditioned athletes frequently injury the hamstrings
– Kicking a ball (football, soccer)
– Hurdles
– Doing the splits


Posted on

Lower leg muscles

The gastrocnemius is in the back of the lower leg. Deep to the gastrocnemius (farther from the skin) is the soleus muscle. They share a common insertion via the Achille´s tendon.

Gastrocnemius

Origin:
1. medial head: just above medial condyle of femur
2. lateral head: just above lateral condyle of femur

Insertion: calcaneus via lateral portion of calcaneal tendon

Action:
1. plantarflex the ankle
2. knee flexion (when not weight bearing)
3. stabilizes ankle & knee when standing

Pain and symptoms associated with the Gastrocnemius muscle

– Pain in the arch of the foot
– Pain toward the outside of the back of the knee
– Pain toward the inside of the back of the knee
– Pain going down the inside of the inside of the lower leg
– Pain around the inside ankle
– Pain on the inside of the foot in the high arch

Activities that cause gastrocnemius pain and symptoms

– Walking uphill
– Climbing
– Climbing stairs
– Cycling
– Jumping
– Swimming with toes pointed (flutter kick)
– Wearing high heels
– Tight banded socks or stockings
– Using footstools and recliners that put pressure on the back of the calves
– Sitting in a chair with knees pressed against the seat
– Sleeping with the covers tucked in too tightly requiring the toes to remain in a pointed, downward position
– Immobility of the lower leg due to a cast or brace

Soleus is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf). It runs from just below the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing and walking. It is closely connected to the gastrocnemius muscle and some anatomists consider them to be a single muscle, the triceps surae.

Origin:
1. upper fibula
2. soleal line of tibia

Insertion: calcaneus via medial portion of calcaneal tendon

Action: plantarflex the foot

Acting via the Achille´s tendon, the gastrocnemius and soleus cause plantar flexion. That is, they increase the angle between the foot and the leg. The soleus plays an important role in maintaining standing posture. Together, the gastrocnemius and the soleus are involved in walking, dancing, running, jumping…

Pain and symptoms associated with the Soleus muscle

– Pain in the heel often to the point of not being able to put weight on the heel
– Pain in the ankle
– Pain in the calf sometimes extending into the back of the knee
– Deep aching in the back of the knee
– Deep pain in the low back
– Hypersensitivity to touch in the lower back
– Poor circulation in the lower legs and feet
– Pain in the jaw and on the side of the head

Activities that cause soleus muscle pain and symptoms

– Walking uphill
– Climbing
– Climbing stairs
– Cycling
– Jumping
– Wearing high heels
– Using footstools and recliners that put pressure on the back of the calves
– Immobility of the lower leg due to a cast or brace

A calf muscle tear is graded from 1 to 3, with grade 3 being the most severe.

Grade 1 symptoms

Grade 1 calf strain is a minor tear with up to 10% of the muscle fibers affected. The athlete will feel a twinge of pain in the back of the lower leg. They may be able to carry on playing or competing in mild discomfort. There is likely to be tightness and aching in the calf muscles two to five days after injury.

Grade 2 symptoms

Symptoms of a grade 2 strain will be more severe than a grade one with up to 90% of the muscle fibers torn. A sharp pain at the back of the lower leg will be felt with significant pain walking. There is likely to be swelling in the calf muscle with mild to moderate bruising. Pain will be felt on resisted plantar flexion or pushing the foot downwards against resistance. There may be tightness and aching in the calf muscle for a week or more.

Grade 3 symptoms

There will be a severe immediate pain at the back of the lower leg. The athlete will be unable to continue and unable to walk. There will be considerable bruising and swelling appearing and the athlete will be unable to even contract the calf muscle. In the case of a full rupture, often there is deformity where the muscle can be seen to be bunched up towards the top of the calf. A grade three is a near, or complete rupture of the muscle.